Windows 7 Improvements for Hardware and Driver Troubleshooting

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Windows 7 includes Reliability Monitor and Resource Monitor to simplify how you isolate the source of hardware problems, allowing you to reduce client computer downtime. Additionally, Windows 7 includes several troubleshooting features first introduced with Windows Vista. The following sections describe these improvements.

1. Windows Troubleshooting Platform

The Windows Troubleshooting Platform, new to Windows 7, is an extensible infrastructure for automated diagnosis of software and hardware problems. If you used Windows Network Diagnostics in Windows Vista, you're familiar with how Windows Troubleshooting Platform works.

To the user performing the troubleshooting, the Windows Troubleshooting Platform is a wizard that attempts to identify the source of the problem and might provide instructions to the user for solving the problem or might solve the problem directly. Users can launch a troubleshooting pack from several different locations. For example, if Windows Internet Explorer cannot open a Web site, the user can click the Diagnose Connection Problems button to launch Windows Network Diagnostics (implemented using the Windows Troubleshooting Platform). Users can also launch troubleshooting packs from Control Panel (located at Control Panel\All Control Panel Items\Troubleshooting) or Help And Support.

1.1. Built-in Troubleshooting Packs

Windows 7 includes built-in troubleshooting packs to correlate to the top 10 categories of Microsoft support calls, including power efficiency, application compatibility, networking, and sound. Table 1 describes the troubleshooting packs that are built into Windows 7 or are currently available using the Windows Online Troubleshooting Service (WOTS). WOTS is a free online service that Windows 7 can use to download new or updated troubleshooting packs.

Table 1. Windows 7 Troubleshooting Packs
AeroTroubleshoot problems that prevent your computer from displaying Aero animations and effects
Playing AudioTroubleshoot problems that prevent your computer from playing sound
Recording AudioTroubleshoot problems that prevent your computer from recording sound
PrinterTroubleshoot problems that prevent you from using a printer
PerformanceAdjust settings in Windows that can help improve overall speed and performance
System MaintenanceClean up unused files and shortcuts and perform other maintenance tasks
PowerAdjust power settings to improve battery life and reduce power consumption
HomeGroupTroubleshoot problems that prevent you from viewing computer or shared files in a HomeGroup
Hardware And DevicesTroubleshoot problems with hardware and devices
Internet Explorer PerformanceTroubleshoot problems that prevent you from browsing the Web with Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer SafetyAdjust settings to improve browser safety in Internet Explorer
Windows Media Player LibraryTroubleshoot problems that prevent music and movies from being shown in the Windows Media Player Library
Windows Media Player SettingsReset Windows Media Player back to default settings
Windows Media Player DVDTroubleshoot problems that prevent playing a DVD in Windows Media Player
Connection to a Workplace Using DirectAccessConnect to your workplace network over the Internet
Shared FoldersAccess shared files and folders on other computers
Incoming ConnectionsAllow other computers to connect to your computer
Network AdapterTroubleshoot Ethernet, wireless, or other network adapters
Internet ConnectionsConnect to the Internet or to a particular Web site
Program CompatibilityTroubleshoot a program that doesn't work in this version of Windows
Search And IndexingTroubleshoot problems finding items with Windows Search
Windows UpdateTroubleshoot problems preventing Windows Update from working correctly

1.2. Windows Troubleshooting Platform Components

The Windows Troubleshooting Platform consists of three main components:

  • Windows troubleshooting packs A collection of Windows PowerShell 2.0 scripts that diagnose and resolve problems. Because they are based on Windows PowerShell, administrators with scripting experience can create their own troubleshooting packs. You can use this capability to automate troubleshooting of problems unique to your environment, such as those relating to your internal applications or network.

  • Windows troubleshooting engine The tool that runs the troubleshooting pack's Windows PowerShell scripts. The Windows PowerShell scripts within a troubleshooting pack use a set of developer interfaces provided by the troubleshooting engine to identify root causes, prompt the user for information, and mark problems as resolved.

  • The troubleshooting wizard The primary user interface for the troubleshooting packs. The wizard first displays the publisher and description of the troubleshooting pack to the user. The Windows PowerShell scripts within the troubleshooting pack can prompt the user through the wizard interface. After the troubleshooting pack has completed, the wizard displays the troubleshooting results in a report. You can bypass the wizard interface to run the troubleshooting pack from a command line or use Extensible Markup Language (XML)–based answer files to run a troubleshooting pack automatically.

1.3. Creating Custom Troubleshooting Packs

The Windows 7 Software Development Kit (SDK), a free download from, includes the Windows Troubleshooting Pack Designer in the \Bin\TSPDesigner folder. You can use the Windows Troubleshooting Pack Designer to create your own troubleshooting packs to troubleshoot common problems not covered by the built-in troubleshooting packs. Troubleshooting packs are also a convenient way to maintain computers; by scheduling them to run in an automated way, you can use troubleshooting packs to detect and resolve common problems without user intervention.

Users can run stand-alone troubleshooting packs packaged as .diagcab files. The .diagcab file format is a specialized archive that contains each of the troubleshooting pack scripts. When packaged as a .diagcab file, troubleshooting packs can be distributed using Group Policy preferences, Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (either during or after deployment), or non-Microsoft software distribution tools. For external customers, you could post the .diagcab files to a Web site and direct your users to open the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) when they experience a problem.

1.4. Running Troubleshooting Packs Remotely

You can run a troubleshooting pack across the network on a remote computer, which can allow you to diagnose common problems quickly and possibly solve them without walking the user through the troubleshooting process. The following Windows PowerShell commands, when run on a Windows 7 computer (either locally or remotely using Invoke-Command or the *-PSession cmdlets), will run the built-in Windows Aero troubleshooting pack, automatically attempt to resolve any problems, and store the results to the C:\DiagResult folder.

Import-Module TroubleshootingPack
$aero = Get-TroubleshootingPack $env:SystemRoot\Diagnostics\System\Aero
Invoke-TroubleshootingPack -Pack $aero -Result C:\DiagResult -unattend

You could also use this technique in a script to run a troubleshooting pack on multiple computers across the network; in combination with a custom troubleshooting pack, you could quickly determine which computers suffered from a specific problem or misconfiguration. Because troubleshooting packs can make configuration changes to solve problems, you could use this approach to detect and resolve a common problem without contacting users or manually connecting to computers.

2. Reliability Monitor

Two of the biggest challenges of troubleshooting hardware problems are determining when the problem began occurring and what might have changed on the computer to introduce the problem. Windows Vista introduced the Reliability Monitor snap-in (as part of the Computer Management console) so that you can easily view application installations, driver installations, and significant failures over several weeks or months.

With Windows 7, Reliability Monitor is now integrated with the Action Center to better correlate system changes and events. Figure 1 shows Reliability Monitor providing details about events on a specific day, including a failed application installation and security updates.

Figure 1. Reliability Monitor provides you with a history of changes and problems.

Beyond the improved user interface, Windows 7 extends Reliability Monitor by exposing reliability data via the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). Using WMI, you can gather reliability data remotely and process it using Windows PowerShell scripts and WMI-related cmdlets (pronounced command-lets). Now, you can use WMI to centrally monitor the reliability of computers running Windows 7 throughout the network.

Management tools such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager and Microsoft System Center Operations Manager can centrally monitor the reliability data from all computers running Windows 7, or you can create your own Windows PowerShell scripts to monitor reliability. By centrally monitoring reliability data, you can identify unreliable computers that are affecting user productivity even if the users don't take the time to call the Support Center.

3. Resource Monitor

IT professionals need deep insight into a computer's inner workings to efficiently troubleshoot problems. The more complex the problem is, the more detailed the information must be. For example, although Task Manager is sufficient to identify the process that is using the most processor time, IT professionals need a more powerful tool to identify which process is generating the most disk or network input/output (I/O).

To give IT professionals detailed information about resource utilization on a process-by-process basis, Windows 7 includes an improved version of Resource Monitor. As shown in Figure 2, Resource Monitor displays this data in a format that provides rapid access to a great deal of information that you can use to easily explore process-specific details.

Figure 2. Resource Monitor shows detailed, real-time performance data

Within seconds, you can use Resource Monitor to view:

  • Which processes are using the most processor time and memory.

  • Which processes are reading and writing the most data to the disk.

  • How much network data each process is sending and receiving.

  • How much memory each process is using.

  • Why a process is nonresponsive.

  • Which services are hosted within a SvcHost.exe process.

  • Which handles, including devices, registry keys, and files, a process is accessing.

  • Which modules, including dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) and other libraries, a process is accessing.

  • Which processes are listening for incoming network connections or have network connections open.

Additionally, you can end processes and search online for information about a process. With Resource Monitor, IT professionals can quickly identify the source of performance and resource utilization problems, reducing the time required to troubleshoot complex issues.

4. Windows Memory Diagnostics

Application failures, operating system faults, and Stop errors are often caused by failing memory. Failing memory chips return different data than the operating system originally stored. Failing memory can be difficult to identify: Problems can be intermittent and might occur only under very rare circumstances. For example, a memory chip might function perfectly when tested in a controlled environment but begin to fail when the internal temperature of the computer becomes too high. Failing memory can also cause secondary problems, such as corrupted files. Often, administrators take drastic steps to repair the problem, such as reinstalling applications or the operating system, only to have the failures persist.

Windows includes Windows Memory Diagnostics to help administrators track down problems with unreliable memory. If Windows Error Reporting (WER) or Microsoft Online Crash Analysis (MOCA) determines that failing memory might be the cause of an error, the software can prompt the user to perform memory diagnostics without requiring an additional download or separate boot disk. Additionally, you can run Windows Memory Diagnostics by choosing a special boot menu option or by loading the Windows Recovery Environment.

If memory diagnostics identify a memory problem, Windows can avoid using the affected portion of physical memory so that the operating system can start successfully and avoid application crashes. Upon startup, Windows provides an easy-to-understand report detailing the problem and instructing the user on how to replace the memory. 

5. Disk Failure Diagnostics

Disk reliability problems can vary in severity. Minor problems can cause seemingly random application failures. For example, if a user connects a new camera and the operating system fails to load the driver, disk corruption may be causing the problem. More severe problems can result in the total loss of data stored on the hard disk.

Windows can eliminate much of the impact of a disk failure by detecting disk problems proactively, before total failure occurs. Hard disks often show warning signs before failure, but earlier Windows operating systems did not record the warning signs. Windows now checks for evidence that a hard disk is beginning to fail and warns the user or the Support Center of the problem. The IT department can then back up the data and replace the hard disk before the problem becomes an emergency. For administrators, Windows acts as a guide through the process of backing up their data so that they can replace the drive without data loss.

Most new hard disks include Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) and Disk Self Tests (DSTs). SMART monitors the health of the disk using a set of degradable attributes, such as head-flying height and bad block reallocation count. DSTs actively check for failures by performing read, write, and servo tests.

Windows queries for SMART status on an hourly basis and regularly schedules DSTs. If Windows detects impending disk failure, Windows can start disk diagnostics to guide the user or IT professionals through the process of backing up the data and replacing the disk before total failure occurs. Windows can also detect problems related to a dirty or scratched CD or DVD and instruct the user to clean the media.

You can configure disk diagnostics using two Group Policy settings. Both are located in Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\System\Troubleshooting And Diagnostics\Disk Diagnostic.

  • Disk Diagnostic: Configure Execution Level Use this policy to enable or disable disk diagnostic warnings. Disabling this policy does not disable disk diagnostics; it simply blocks disk diagnostics from displaying a message to the user and taking any corrective action. If you have configured a monitoring infrastructure to collect disk diagnostic events recorded to the event log and prefer to manually respond to events, you can disable this policy.

  • Disk Diagnostic: Configure Custom Alert Text Enable this property to define custom alert text (up to 512 characters) in the disk diagnostic message that appears when a disk reports a SMART fault.

For disk diagnostics to work, the Diagnostic Policy Service must be running. Note that disk diagnostics cannot detect all impending failures. Additionally, because SMART attribute definitions are vendor specific, different vendor implementations can vary. SMART will not function if hard disks are attached to a hardware redundant array of independent disks (RAID) controller.


Many hardware vendors use SMART failures as a warranty replacement indicator.

6. Self-Healing NTFS

Windows Vista and Windows 7 include self-healing NTFS File System (NTFS), which can detect and repair file system corruption while the operating system is running. In most cases, Windows will repair file corruption without disrupting the user. Essentially, self-healing NTFS functions similarly to ChkDsk, but it works in the background, without locking an entire volume. Specifically, if Windows detects corrupted metadata on the file system, it invokes the self-healing capabilities of NTFS to rebuild the metadata. Some data may still be lost, but Windows can limit the damage and repair the problem without taking the entire system offline for a lengthy check-and-repair cycle.

Self-healing NTFS is enabled by default and requires no management. Instead, it will serve to reduce the number of disk-related problems that require administrative intervention. If self-healing fails, the volume will be marked "dirty," and Windows will run ChkDsk on the next startup.

7. Improved Driver Reliability

Drivers should be more reliable in Windows Vista and Windows 7 than they are in previous versions of Windows. Improved I/O cancellation support is built into Windows Vista and Windows 7 to enable drivers that might become blocked when attempting to perform I/O to gracefully recover. Windows Vista and Windows 7 also have new application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow applications to cancel I/O operations, such as opening a file.

To help developers create more stable drivers, Microsoft provides the Driver Verifier. Developers can use the Driver Verifier to verify that their drivers remain responsive and to ensure that they correctly support I/O cancellation. Because driver response failures can affect multiple applications or the entire operating system, these improvements will have a significant impact on Windows stability. This improvement requires no effort from administrators; you will simply benefit from a more reliable operating system.

8. Improved Error Reporting

Windows 7 offers improved application reliability, and the new error reporting capabilities allow applications to continue to become more reliable over time. In earlier versions of Windows, application response failures were very hard for developers to troubleshoot, because error reporting provided limited or no information about them. Windows Vista and Windows 7 improve error reporting to give developers the information they need to permanently resolve the root cause of the problems, thus providing continuous improvements in reliability.
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