7. ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT
Enterprise Content Management (ECM) was
first introduced to the platform in SharePoint 2007 by adding two site
templates (Records Center and Document Center) and capabilities such as
check-in, check-out, versioning, information management policies, holds,
and many other features tied to SharePoint content.
SharePoint 2010 expanded on these capabilities by
wrapping the base ECM capabilities to Features. SharePoint 2010 also
introduced many other core and compliance capabilities to ECM, such as
in-place records management, the document ID service, the document set,
and the content organizer.
In SharePoint 2013, although Microsoft has
introduced several new ECM features and enhancements such as eDiscovery
and site mailboxes, there are two areas that matter the most to
developers: site policies and managed meta data.
Now look at site policies.
Information management policy is a set
of rules that define certain behaviors or restrictions on the content
kept in SharePoint. For example, auditing sensitive information is a
common requirement for many departments such as HR. Questions like, “Who
has changed the permissions of the HR site in the past 10 days?” or
“Did someone move the content in the Payroll document library to another
site?” are among many other auditing questions that may arise during
the life cycle of a SharePoint site.
In SharePoint 2010, you could create only policies
attached to content types or at the site collection level. SharePoint
2013 has a new set of policies. If you browse to Site Settings ⇒ Site
Collection Administration, there is a new link called Site Policies,
which enables you to control the life cycle of a site.
Figure 15 illustrates some of the options available in a site policy.
As shown in Figure 15,
you can choose how a site should expire and what should happen when it
expires. For example, a site can be deleted automatically seven months
after it was created, and a workflow executes to handle some custom
business logic before deletion. Conveniently, if the site collection in
which you define the policy is a content type hub, you can push your
policies down to all subscribed site collections.
combined with self-service site creation, site policies offer a
powerful mechanism for site life-cycle management in SharePoint 2013.
Users can select a site policy when requesting a site, and the site
policy will be automatically enforced based on its logic.
After a site policy is defined at the site
collection level, the site owner can browse to the Site Closure and
Deletion page on a subsite’s settings page, and select the site policy.
This can also be done programmatically through improved CSOM interfaces
in SharePoint 2013.
The next section discusses managed meta-data improvements in SharePoint 2013.
Managed Meta Data
Managed meta data plays a more prominent
role in SharePoint 2013 than in SharePoint 2010. However, from an
architectural standpoint, the core capabilities are the same.
To use managed meta data in your site, you still
need a managed meta-data service (MMS) application and a tool called
Term Store. The tool enables you to work with one instance of the
managed meta-data service application at a time. Terms are categorized
in groups (top-level container) and then in term sets within each group.
The term hierarchy is stored in MMS application databases along with
syndicated content types. If social tags are enabled, the MMS
application also uses a social tag database created by a user profile
Just like SharePoint 2010, SharePoint 2013 managed
meta-data groups can be local or global. A global group is the one that
can be used by any site collection connected to the same instance of
the MMS application. A local group is one that although stored in the
MMS application database is only available to a specific site
collection. What is different in SharePoint 2013 is the ability to make a
local group available to other site collections (in read-only mode) by
specifying the URL of the consumer site collection.
Figure 16 shows cross-site collection term access in the improved term store tool in SharePoint 2013.
In SharePoint 2010, users could reuse terms in the
term hierarchy. After these terms were reused, they could be updated
and deleted in both the source and the referenced term sets. Updating on
any ends would have been applied to the entire term hierarchy, but
deleting was slightly different. Deleting a reused term from the source
was not deleting the term from the referenced term sets. So, reused
terms were supposed to be pointers, but in reality they were not
pointers — kind of confusing.
Reusing terms is still there in SharePoint 2013
and functions exactly as in SharePoint 2010. SharePoint 2013 introduced a
new operation for terms: term pinning.
A pinned term is just like a reused term except it is read-only and
cannot be modified (updated or deleted) in the referenced term sets. In
addition, if you delete a pinned term from the source, it will be
deleted from all the referenced term sets. Now, you have the real
NOTE Cross-site collection terms are based on pinned terms, not reused terms.
Another major improvement is custom properties for
terms. In SharePoint 2010, terms had property bags that could be
accessed only via taxonomy server-side APIs. SharePoint 2013 now
includes the ability to work with custom properties in terms and term
sets through the browser, and CSOM APIs are added for remote clients.
Custom properties are either shared or local. Those available in all
reused and pinned instances of the term are called shared custom properties. Local properties are only accessible for the term within the source term set.
Great news for bilingual customers and businesses is the ability to add working languages in an MMS application without having to install the language packs, as shown in Figure 17.
This is definitely a welcome change for those
customers who want to have their taxonomy in multiple languages, but
their content is primarily authored and consumed in English. This also
is handy for developers who don’t like to install and manage multiple
language packs just to work with multilingual taxonomies.
After new working languages are added to the MMS
application, a new tab becomes available for each term set that enables
you to choose three options for term translation. The options are
Machine Translate, which is powered by a new machine translation service
application in SharePoint 2013; Create Translation Package to export
the term sets into a XLIFF package for professional translation; or
Upload Translation, which basically imports the translation package back
to the MMS application.
You briefly looked at new features in ECM; the next workload to explore is Web Content Management.